1(a) Inform yourself fully.
1(b) Establish a mutual trust in each other.
1(c) Find a common ground of experience.
1(d) Use naturally known words.
1(e) Have regard for context.
1(f) Secure and hold receiver’s attention.
1(g) Employ examples and visual aids.
1(h) Practice relaying reactions.
1(i) Self-Concept. How people see them-selves and their situations. A strong or weak self-concept often distorts the individual’s perception of how others see him generating a feeling of insecurity.
1(j) Listening. The hearing is done with ears while listening is intellectual and emotional. These are intellectual inputs in search of meaning and understanding.
LISTENING IS AN ART TO UNDERSTAND THE OTHER PERSON BETTER
1(a) It is a compliment to the speaker.
1(b) Effective listening requires patience, the presence of mind, interest and a positive attitude.
1(c) It is not an inborn trait but is a skill to be acquired by practice, experience and training.
1(d) Listening is a process involving awareness, reception and perception.
1(e) Listening is a dual responsibility of speakers and listeners. Major benefits of good listening are:
$1(f) A good listener can make better decisions because he is better informed.
$1(g) A good listener saves time because he learns more within a given time.
$1(h) Listening helps the communicator to determine how well his message is received.
$1(i) A good listener stimulates others to better speaking.
$1(j) A good listener decreases chances of misunderstanding.
Listeners Laws for Speech Substance:
1(a) Listeners like examples in story form.
1(b) Listeners like examples which involve great people.
1(c) Listeners like examples from golden pages of History.
1(d) Listeners like examples which dramatize important events.
$1(e) Listeners like examples supplemented by visual aids.
A ‘poor – listener’ communicator:
1(a) Can never get adequate information and feedback.
1(b) His communication can at best be a shot in the dark.
1(c) He either fails to put across what he wants and what he gets across is distorted beyond recognition.
A ‘Poor Listening’ communicatee:
1(a) Never gets to know or comprehend even simple messages; his own emotional or other filters distort the message.
1(b) Others can use him as an easy prey to their motivated distortions.
1(c) Avoidable and unfortunate tensions and misunderstandings continue to dominate the scene.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
The process of communication is very sensitive to distortions. These distortions are barriers to communication. These can be:
1(a) Physical. Environmental factors like distance, noise, lack of time etc.
1(b) Semantics. Semantic barriers arise because much of what people say in words or symbols have the same meaning for different people.
1(c) Psychological Ear Muffs -It is a state of split attention; One listens to one part of the talk attentively and ignores the rest as unnecessary.
Barriers to Communication may also be listed as under:
1(a) Limitations to a receiver’s capacity.
1(c) Intrusion of unconscious or conscious mechanism.
1(d) Confused Presentation.